Destination: 1 Samuel 16-31

Flight Plan:
Wednesday, November 14, 2007

Get your travel planner out for flight sixteen over the Bible from 30,000 Feet. This week our tour guide, Pastor Skip Heitzig, will complete our tour of the book of 1 Samuel, covering chapters 16-31. On this flight we'll meet the man who God calls, "a man after my own heart (Acts 13:22)," David son of Jesse. We'll see David as a young shepherd boy who defeats Goliath and rises to national prominence overnight. His instant popularity arouses the jealousy of King Saul and forces David into hiding.

Detailed Notes:

Interactive Travel Guide

The first half of First Samuel deals with Saul's rise and demise. The second half of First Samuel tells the story of David. David is a young shepherd boy who defeats Goliath and rises to national prominence overnight. His instant popularity arouses the jealousy of King Saul and forces David into hiding.


1380 - 1050 B.C.
Judges rule in Israel

1200 B.C.
Philistines occupy the Mediterranean coast

1100 - 1010 B.C.
Samuel's prophetic career

1050 B.C.
Saul becomes King of Israel

1018 B.C.
Samuel anoints David to be king

1010 B.C.
The conquest of Canaan

1003 B.C.
David's reign is acknowledged throughout Israel

970 B.C.
David dies and Solomon becomes king


The second section of First Samuel deals with David's rise to power and his exile into hiding.

The Making of A King
1) A King Unveiled - Chapter 16
2) A Warrior Unleashed - Chapter 17 - 20
3) A Leader Under Fire - Chapter 21 - 31


The Valley of Elah - The scene of the events of 1 Samuel 17:2 where David fought Goliath. About 15 miles west of Bethlehem, the Philistines stood upon the southern hills and the Israelites stood to the North or Northeast. There was a wide valley floor upon which David's contest with Goliath occurred. It was near Shochoh in the tribe of Judah and Azekah (17:1). It is the modern Wady es-Sunt, 1.e., "valley of the acaia" (1 Sam 17:1-2).

Nob - An ancient priestly town to which David came on his way south when he fled from Saul at Gilbeah. Nob was a town or village in ancient Israel in the vicinity of Jerusalem. It may have been located near the Mount of Olives or possibly further north. It likely belonged to the Tribe of Benjamin, as Jerusalem was the border between Benjamin and Judah (1 Sam 21:1).

The Wilderness of Moan - A wasteland beginning about five miles south of Ziph. While camping there, the Ziphites discovered David and told Saul, who chased him east towards En Gedi (1 Sam 23:19).

En Gedi - Again fleeing from Saul, David goes to En Gedi - a stronghold (inaccessible to the enemy), located in the wilderness, where they probably had a bubbling spring, rocks, sand and tremendous heat. En Gedi is located in southeastern Israel on the west bank of the Dead Sea. Because of its spring in an otherwise totally arid country, the site has been inhabited from antiquity (1 Sam 23:29).

Hill of Hakilah (Hachilah) - A barren wasteland covering an area south and east of Hebron, the exact site is unknown but was somewhere in the wilderness of Ziph. Saul and his army camped by this hill while he was pursuing David. David caught Saul asleep in a cave and stole his spear and water jug (1 Sam 26).

Ziklag - This town was probably located about 12 miles northeast of Beersheba on the eastern border of Philistine territory. Chased by Saul, David fled to Gath in Philistine territory. After gaining the trust of Achish, the king of Gath, he was allowed to headquarter in Ziklag (1 Sam 27:6).

Endor - Seven or eight miles northeast of Mount Gilboa, this is the village where the witch of Endor lived (1 Sam 28).

Gilboa - Located about 60 miles north of Jerusalem and about 20 miles southwest of the Sea of Galilee, Mount Gilboa rises out of the plains of Jezreel. Saul fought his final battle on the hillside of Mount Gilboa. There he was killed along with three of his sons (1 Sam 31).

Beth Shan - Located about 10 miles to the southwest of Gilboa, Beth Shan is the place that the Philistines took the bodies of Saul and his sons and hung them on the city walls (1 Sam 31:8-10).


The Witch of Endor - She was a medium who was visited by Saul. Probably to her own surprise she brought up Samuel from the dead (1 Sam 28:7).

The Ziphites - While David was hiding in the hills of Judah, men from the town of Ziph discovered him and reported his location to Saul. Ziph was most likely a small town located about four miles southeast of Hebron. It was on a hillside overlooking the countryside with good vision of the valley (1 Sam 23:14-20).

Jesse's Family -

a. Jesse - He is the father of David. His own grandparents were Boaz and Ruth. The father of eight sons and two daughters (1 Sam 16:1).

b. Eliab - The oldest son of Jesse. Samuel thought for sure that Eliab would be God's anointed, but God told him "Do not look at his appearance or at the height of his stature, because I have refused him. For the Lord does not see as man sees; for man looks at the outward appearance, but the LORD looks at the heart" (1 Sam 16:6). He later became one of David's critics (1 Sam. 17:28).

c. Abinadab - The 2nd of Jesse's eight sons. He was also rejected by God (1 Sam 16:8).

d. Shammah - Jesse's 3rd son (1 Sam 16:9).

e. Shimeah - Jesse's 4th son (1 Sam 16:9). He became the father of Jonathan, a brave warrior who would kill a giant with 6 toes and 6 fingers (2 Sam 21:20-21). Shimeah other son, Amnon, helped plan the rape of David's daughter Tamar (2 Sam 13:3).

f. Zeruiah - One of Jesse's daughters and David's sister. She was the mother of Joab, the general of David's army (2 Sam 2:13).

g. David - Jesse's youngest son. He was the slayer of the giant Goliath (1 Sam 17). David was a shepherd, a great soldier, and a singer. He would later become the 2nd King of Israel and in the Old Testament history ranks with Abraham and Moses as the great men of the Bible (1 Sam 16:13). You can read more about David in 2 Samuel.


David's Anointing - As king of Israel, David was called the Lord's anointed. He was both a political and spiritual leader. and was set apart for God's work. A prophet or priest was the one who would anoint a king. The prophet Samuel anointed David with an animal horn filled with oil. It was probably a secret recipe used to anoint the priest. The oil was poured over the head of the kneeling king (1 Sam. 16:1-13).

Harps - David was a skilled musician who knew how to play the harp. The Weapon that Won the Battle at Elah - What kind of weapon did David use in his battle with Goliath? It was a sling, not as kids would use, but the kind that was used by armies for centuries during this time (Judges 20:16). With a stone in place, the sling was spun around the warrior's head several times. At the chosen moment, on end was released sending the stone towards its chosen target. Goliath may have thought it a child's toy, but soon found out it was a deadly weapon (1 Sa. 17:45-51).

Festival of the New Moon - The Israelites were a festive people. They worked hard six days each week and always looked for festive occasions. One of these festivals was celebrated each month at the new moon. Called the Festival of the New Moon, it was consecrated to the Lord by bringing special sacrifices, blowing of the trumpets and the cessation from normal work (1 Sam 20:5; 18).

The Showbread - Inside the Tabernacle was a tablet that held 12 round loaves of bread. This Holy Bread was called the showbread. It was to symbolize that God was the Bread of Life for the people of Israel. This bread was baked each Friday afternoon. Only the priests from the family of Garmu knew the recipe. These loaves were a part of the Sabbath day ceremony. The old bread was not thrown away, but divided among the priests (1 Sam 21:1-4).

Mediums (The Witch of Endor) - In spite of all of God's warnings, magicians, witches, sorcerers, and wizards continued to be popular with the people of Israel. Many people believed that evil spirits controlled their lives. They used the witches and mediums to try to see the future and alter their lives. Reading the futures, also known as divinations was what Saul sought (1 Sam. 28).

David's deliverances -
Over and over we have seen David delivered from the hand of Saul. But it's often different each time. So far, we've seen:

1) Deliverance through a peacemaker - Jonathan talked to his dad, and for a while, there was peace between Saul and David (1 Sam. 19:1-7).

2) Deliverance through running - this seems to be a major factor in David's life. When Saul sent messenger's to David's house, Michal helped David run away (1 Sam. 19:11-17). Over and over again, when God brings about a chance to escape, David runs.

3) Deliverance through God's power - when David hid with Samuel at Naioth, God's Spirit supernaturally overwhelmed each of the messengers until they all were prophesying (1 Sam. 19:18-24).

4) Deliverance through God's guidance - David enquired of the Lord and God warned David to flee from Keilah so he wouldn't be betrayed (1 Sam. 23:7-13).

5) Deliverance through encouragement - Jonathan encouraged David in the Lord - he kept David going (1 Sam. 23:16-18).

6) Deliverance though the exit - God caused Saul to get sidetracked long enough for David to make his escape (1 Sam. 23:26-29).

7) Deliverance through kindness - instead of killing Saul, David showed kindness, and Saul temporarily allowed David to go (1 Sam. 24).

8) Deliverance through confrontation - David didn't just show kindness to Saul, he confronted him about the truth (1 Sam. 24).


I Samuel Map