Get your travel planner out for flight nineteen over the Bible from 30,000 Feet, as we soar over 1 Kings 1-22. On this flight we will see the transition that Israel undertakes as it moves from the rule of King David to the rule of his son King Solomon after his death. After Solomon turns from the Lord, we will see how Israel is divided and moved in and out of the power of many kings such as Ahab, Jehoshaphat, and Ahaziah. These chapters will reveal a story of true loyalty and disobedience to God. The key chapters to review are 1 Kings 1-3, 6, 8, 11, 12, 18, and 19.
DESTINATION: 1 Kings 1-22
1 Kings covers the history of Israel as it moves from being united under King David to divided under King Solomon. It's a story of good Kings and bad Kings, true prophets and false prophets, loyalty and disobedience to God.
CALENDAR OF EVENTS:
David becomes king over all Israel
Solomon is born
David dies and Solomon becomes King
Solomon dies; Jeroboam reigns in Israel and Rehoboam reigns in Judah.
Asa becomes king in Judah
Baasha becomes king in Israel
Ahab becomes king in Israel
Jehoshaphat becomes king in Judah
Elijah begins to prophesy against Ahab
The Tale of Two Kingdoms - the story of 1 Kings is the story of how Israel, because of their disobedience to God's Word, moves from a powerful unified nation under King David to a divided nation under many different Kings.
1. The United Kingdom - 1 Kings 1-11
a. Rise of Solomon - 1 Kings 1-8
b. Decline of Solomon - 1 Kings 9-12
2. The Divided Kingdom - 1 Kings 12-22
a. Reign of many kings - 1 Kings 12-16:28
b. Reign of Ahab - 1 Kings 16:29-22:40
c. Reign of Jehoshaphat - 1 Kings 22:41-50
d. Reign of Ahaziah - 1 Kings 22:51-53
PLACES OF INTEREST:
Twenty Cities Given By Solomon To King Hiram - King Solomon gave King Hiram one city for each year in which he provided building supplies. The cities were located in the region of Tyre which is northeast of Jerusalem. God did not give us the names of the cities (1 Kings 9:10-13).
Samaria - Samaria became the capitol of Israel, the Northern Kingdom, some years after the country split in two, after Solomon's death. It's located on a hill about 35 miles north of Jerusalem. King Omri, the 6th King of Israel, bought the hill and named it Samaria, in honor of its former owner, Shemer, and built his palace on it. During the time of Jesus there was a continuing hostility between Jews and Samaritans, as found in John 8:48, Luke 9:52-53, and the surprise of the disciples when they found Jesus talking with a Samaritan woman at Jacob's well (John 4:7-9). The city was destroyed by the Romans in AD 66, and again rebuilt (1 Kings 16:24).
Sheba - This is a southern kingdom mentioned in the Old Testament. The actual location of the historical kingdom is disputed between Ethiopia and Yemen (1 Kings 10:1).
Solomon's Temple - Location - The Temple was probably situated upon the more easterly of the two hills which form the site of the present-day Temple Mount - Noble Sanctuary, at the center of which is the Dome of the Rock. This is the same site where Abraham was to sacrifice Isaac (Gen 22:2). Under the Jebusites the site was used as a threshing floor. 2 Sam. 24 describes its consecration during David's reign (1 Kings 5-9).
Tirzah - Tirzah was one of the Canaanite cities that were taken by the Israelites under Joshua during their God-commanded possession of the Promised Land (from Dan to Beersheba, the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea). Later, after the death of Solomon, when the united kingdom of the Israelites split into two separate kingdoms, Israel and Judah, Jeroboam made his residence at Tirzah, making it the capital of the northern ten tribes (1 Kings 14:7-20).
Tisbe - The birthplace of Elijah. An area in the forested mountains of Gilead. Tishbe in Gilead has long been associated with the archaeological remains at modern Listib (1 Kings 17:1).
PEOPLE OF INTEREST:
Abijam - He ruled for 3 years beginning his reign in 913 B.C. He rebuked Jeroboam, King of the North, for leading the rebellion against Rehoboam, and then defeated him on the battlefield (1 Kings 15:1).
Adonijah - When David was on his death bed, his oldest living son, Adonijah, attempted to steal the throne from his half brother, Solomon. He was supported by Joab and Abiathar (1 Kings 1:7). He is placed on probation but is executed at a later time for again attempting to ascend to the throne by marrying Abishag who had been David's last concubine (1 Kings 1:3; 2:17, 25).
Ahab - Ahab was the seventh King of Israel. He reigned for 22 years (874-852 BC). He was the son of Omri. He married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Sidonians. Ahab, under Jezebel's influence, built a pagan temple, and allowed idols into Samaria. He was one of the most wicked of all Kings. He was often confronted by Elijah. He was killed in battle, just as Elijah had prophesied (1 Kings 16:29).
Ahaziah - He was Ahab's oldest son who made an attempt to kill the prophet Elijah for predicting that he would not recover from a severe fall he had suffered. He began his reign of 2 years in 853 B.C. (I Kings 22:1).
Asa - A ruler for 41 years, he began his rule around 911 B.C. He was Judah's first king who had a relationship with God. He led his people in a revival while at the same time he deposed his grandmother, Queen Maachah for idolatry. All during his reign, he fought with King Baasha, 3rd ruler of the North. Toward the latter part of his life Asa backslides and finally died of a foot disease for which sickness he refused to seek God's help (2 Chronicles 16:12).
Baasha - having assassinated Jeroboam, Baasha began his reign in 909 B.C. He ruled for 24 years. He had destroyed the dynasty of Jeroboam, as God had predicted, but received the same judgment prophecy upon his own family due to his own wickedness (1 Kings 15:33).
Bath-Sheba - visits her dying husband David, and arranges for Solomon, her favorite son, to be anointed by Zadok the priest (1 Kings 1:39).
Ben-Hadad I - (879 B.C.) He was bribed by the Southern King Asa to help him in his struggle against Baasha, the Northern ruler (1 Kings 15:16-18). He was later defeated by the Northern King, Ahab (l King 20).
Elah - He was the son of Baasha, beginning his rule in 886 B.C. He was the ruler for a short 2 years before being assassinated his own chariot captain, Zimri, while he was "drinking himself drunk" (1 Kings 16:8-9).
Elijah - Here is the most famous Old Testament prophet. Elijah, a Tishbite from the region of Gilead, was a prophet in Israel during the reigns of Ahab, Ahaziah and Jehoram. All his life Elijah was active in the defense of God. His teachings brought him into constant conflict with the Kings of Israel, and on one occasion had to flee for his life. He fought against the cult of Baal, and clashed frequently with Ahab's wife Jezebel, who had introduced the pagan cult in Israel. He was one who prayed for both droughts and downpours. During times of great need while doing God's work against the wicked rule of Ahab, he was fed by ravens and a starving widow. He also raised the righteous dead and killed the living wicked (1 Kings 17:1).
Jehoshaphat - A southern kingdom ruler began his rule in 873 B.C. The length of his reign was 25 years. Like his father, Jehoshaphat led his people in a great revival, but compromised his testimony when he made a political alliance with the wicked King Ahab of the North. This included giving of his son Jehoram to marry the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, a pagan whose name was Athaliah (1 Kings 15:24).
Jeroboam - began his 22 year reign in 930 B.C. He led the rebellion against Rehoboam and instituted a false religion at both Bethel and Dan. Jeroboam was so evil that God said 21 times that Jeroboam made Israel to sin (1 Kings 12:25).
Jezebel - Jezebel was the wife of Ahab, who was king of Israel from about 874 BC to about 852 BC. She was the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of Sidon. Jezebel worshiped a pagan god called Baal and she helped to corrupt Israel with idol worship. She was evil and influential. The prophets Elijah and Elisha blamed Jezebel more than Ahab for the persecution of God's prophets during that era. Jezebel's daughter, Athaliah, became Queen of Judah, and she too was evil.
Joab - Previously the commander of the army for King David, this general is finally executed, not only for his part in Adonijah's rebellion, but for many past crimes which included the murders of Abner and Amasa (1 Kings 2:28-34).
Nadab - beginning in 910 B.C. he reigned 2 years. He was Jeroboam's son and was assassinated by Baasha to secure his throne (l Kings 15:25).
Nathan - the Prophet, who had confronted David over the affair with Bath-Sheba, now warns Bath-Sheba about Adonijah's plot to ascend to the throne ahead of Solomon (1 Kings 1:11).
Obadiah - He was in charge of King Ahab's household affairs during the ministry of Elijah. He was a backslidden Israelite believer who had hidden 100 prophets in two caves from the murderous Jezebel, but still had not taken his stand for God before Ahab and the people (1 Kings 18:3-4).
Omri - He began the 4th Northern dynasty ruling for 12 years beginning in 885 B.C. He made Samaria the new Northern Capitol, and became one of the most powerful of all the Kings (1 Kings 16:23).
Rehoboam - The son of Solomon, he began his reign in 930 B.C. and ruled for 17 years. It was because of his lack of respect and thinking of what was best for his people that he was the cause of Israel's civil war (1 Kings 12:1).
Shemei - Shimei, like Adonijah, for awhile placed on parole and limited not to cross the Brook Kidron, but he broke this trust and suffered the death penalty for it (1 Kings 2:36-46). At the execution of Shimei, David's dying request had been fulfilled by Solomon, for he had asked that justice be done to both Joab and Shimei (1 Kings 2:5,8).
Shishak (935-914 B.C.) - As Jeroboam ran into exile, he was befriended by Shishak the King of Egypt. This was during the latter part of Solomon's reign and later he led an army against Rehoboam (1 Kings 11:40; 14:25).
Solomon - Solomon, the son of King David and Bathsheba, was the third king of Israel. Solomon was renown for his wisdom, wealth and for his construction projects. Israel enjoyed an era of security, prosperity, and international political and economic importance under Solomon. Solomon was anointed king when his older brother, Adonijah, rashly tried to proclaim himself as ruler when their father, King David, became old. But Bathsheba and the prophet Nathan, with the support of others, crowned Solomon as King.
Zadok - He manifested his loyalty to the king when he espoused the cause of Solomon against Adonijah (1 Kings 1:8).
Zimri - A strange ruler began his reign in 885 B.C. He ruled for only 7 days. In that time he was able to destroy all of Baasha's descendants as God had predicted. After only a week's rule he committed suicide by remaining in a burning building (1 Kings 16:11-18).
Baking Bread in an Oven - When Elijah asked the widow to make him some bread, how did she do it. She may have baked it on an oven called a tannur. This was shaped like a pottery jar. It was filled with sticks and lit on fire. The dough would have been put on the outside and baked. Look at 1 Kings 17:12, where she says that she was gathering sticks to bake her bread (1 Kings 17:8-16).
Cedars of Lebanon - Solomon bought these trees from King Hiram of Tyre. This was great quality wood from the finest cedar trees in the Middle East. It was ideal for use as a building material and was used for the interior of the temple. It was a dark red in color and had a special sweet smell. The logs were tied together into rafts and were floated down the seacoast to various port cities. They were then dragged overland to Jerusalem (1 Kings 5-8).
Elijah's Mantle - It was his cloak. This is very similar to an overcoat today. They were made by hand and were difficult to produce. Therefore, most people had only one. A mantle was worn as protection against the burning sun and for warmth on a cold night. It had many uses. On a warm night, it was a pillow. At meal time, it would be laid out on the ground for your special guest to sit upon. You could make a bundle to carry goods back from the marketplace. A farmer could tie it into a bag a fill it with his seeds to plant his field. A cloak was also used in a symbolic way.
a. By spreading the cloak over a woman's shoulders, you were saying you would care for her.
b. Throwing a cloak over a man's shoulders represented a transfer of power or authority. It also meant a call to discipleship (1 Kings 19:19-21).
c. A cloak was sometimes given to a lender as a pledge for a debt.
Famine - All of the areas surrounding Israel depend on rain for the growing of their crops. The old calendar was dated around the rain seasons. It was separated by the rainy season and the dry season. If October and November bring no moisture, the planting season is delayed and the harvest will be slim. Without the winter rains, the country would remain without water; parched and dry from the summer heat. The smaller the crop, the fewer seeds to plant next year which extends the famine. During Elijah's time, a rainless period of time led to famine (1 Kings 17).
Quarrying Stone - Just as the cedar wood was used for the interior; stones from the quarry were used to construct the exterior. Solomon got his stone from the quarries north of Jerusalem. Stonecutters and stonemasons worked for years in the pits crafting the stone to such perfection that they were fitted together at the construction site with very little or no mortar. When delivered to the temple area, they would be lowered on site using pulleys, rollers and sledges (1 Kings 5-8).